Maraging 350 (also known as Vascomax® 350) is an 18% nickel, cobalt strengthened steel. It is a very high strength material reaching a UTS of 2310 MPA after heat treatment. Maraging 350 steel is produced by Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) followed by Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR).
Maraging steel is a type of ultra-high strength steel, it is based on carbon-free or ultra-low carbon Fe-Ni Martensite as the matrix and making the metal compounds aged to precipitate and harden. The Maraging steel grades 18Ni(200), 18Ni(250) and 18Ni(300) steels with a yield strength of 1400, 1700 and 1900 MPa were obtained by INCO by adding different contents of Co, Mo and Ti into the Fe-Ni Martensitic alloy through aging hardening. The 18Ni(200) and 18Ni(250) steels were first applied to the shell of the rocket engine or some special requirements where need ultra-high strength. The strength of Maraging steel does not come from the carbon but the precipitation of intermetallic compounds. AISI 18Ni steel is the representative grade of Maraging steel.
After solid solution, 18Ni steel forms ultra-low carbon Martensite with a hardness of 28~30HRC. After aging treatment, it gets aging hardening due to the dissolution and precipitation of various intermetallic compounds. The hardness can increase to 50HRC. The excellent characteristic of 18Ni steel is that it still has good toughness and high fracture toughness under the condition of ultra-high-strength and high hardness. At the same time, it’s without cold hardening, small aging heat treatment deformation, good welding performance, metals surface can be nitriding treatment.
18Ni maraging steel is a perfect combination of high strength and hardness, good toughness and plasticity. It has been widely used in aviation, aerospace, precision mold and other industrial fields, such as rocket engine shell, missile shell, uranium isotope centrifuge high-speed rotating cylinder and other high precision load-bearing parts of the material.
Maraging 350 is a specialized high-strength steel alloy known for its exceptional mechanical properties, making it a preferred material in critical aerospace and defense applications. Developed in the 1960s, this unique alloy has been widely used in the manufacturing of various aerospace components due to its outstanding combination of strength, toughness, and machinability.
Understanding Maraging 350Maraging 350 belongs to a family of maraging steels, which are derived from the term “martensitic aging.” These steels are characterized by their ability to attain ultra-high strength through a precipitation-hardening process. Maraging 350 is predominantly composed of iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and small amounts of other elements like molybdenum (Mo), titanium (Ti), and aluminum (Al). This unique combination of alloying elements imparts exceptional mechanical properties to Maraging 350, setting it apart from conventional steel alloys.
Mechanical PropertiesThe defining feature of Maraging 350 is its impressive mechanical strength. Through a specialized aging process, the alloy achieves an impressive tensile strength of approximately 240 ksi (1,655 MPa) to 300 ksi (2,070 MPa), significantly higher than many other steel alloys. Additionally, Maraging 350 exhibits remarkable toughness, making it highly resistant to impact and fatigue failure. Its excellent machinability further enhances its appeal in aerospace applications, as intricate components can be accurately manufactured without compromising its integrity.
Advantages of Maraging 350
- High Strength-to-Weight Ratio: Maraging 350’s impressive strength-to-weight ratio makes it a favored material in aerospace applications, allowing for lighter structures without compromising performance.
- Fatigue Resistance: The alloy’s exceptional toughness and resistance to fatigue failure ensure that components made from Maraging 350 can endure prolonged stress and repeated loading.
- Weldability: Maraging 350 exhibits good weldability, enabling ease of fabrication and assembly of complex aerospace components.
ConclusionMaraging 350 stands as a remarkable example of advanced engineering in the aerospace industry. Its exceptional mechanical properties, including high strength, toughness, and machinability, have solidified its position as a top-choice material for critical aerospace applications. As aerospace technology continues to advance, Maraging 350 will undoubtedly remain a key player in shaping the future of aerospace engineering, ensuring the safety and reliability of aircraft and spacecraft components for years to come.
Maraging 350 Chemical Composition
Maraging 350 Physical Properties
|Density||Modulus of Elasticity||Average Co of Thermal Expansion|
|8.08 g/cm³||29.0 x 10-6 psi||6.3 x 10-6 in/in/°F|
|900/925 °F||6 hrs||55/60 Rc|
|950 °F||3 hrs||56/60 Rc|
- Bars & Rods & Foring Ring /Flanges
- Sheet & Plate
- Strip & Coil
- Welding Wire &Spring wire
- Seamless Tube & Welded Pipe
»Round Bar & Square Bar & Hexagon Bar
● Diameter : φ8～φ300mm Length:10mm-6000mm
● Hot forging, Hot Rolling, Cold Drawing
● Bright Surface, Polished Surface, Black Surface
»Tube & Pipe:Seamless Tube& Welded Pipe
● Cold Drawing Seamless Pipe： φ1.0～φ220mm
● Hot Extrusion pipe: φ50～φ250mm
● Others : U Blend Tube and Elbow
»Hot Rolled Plate & Cold Rolled Sheet
● Cold Rolling Sheet Thickness: ≦2.0mm Width:≦1500m
● Hot rolling Plate Thickness: ≧4.0mm Width: ≦2500m
»Strip & Tape Ribbon
● Thickness: ≧ 0.01mm Width: 15mm-300mm
● Cold rolling BA Strip, Hard & Soft Condition
»Straight Length Wire & Spool Wire
● Welding Wire: φ 0.1mm～6.0mm Cut length Rod: φ1.0～φ8.0mm
● Package : 5-25kg/Spool or Box
Maraging 350 ApplicationsI
Landing and takeoff gear
Missile and ejector systems
Maraging 350 is a type of maraging steel, which is a class of high-strength, low-alloy steels. The term “maraging” is derived from “martensitic” and “aging,” which refers to the process of strengthening the steel through heat treatment.
Maraging steels are known for their exceptional strength, toughness, and resistance to corrosion. They achieve their impressive properties through a unique combination of alloying elements and a specific heat treatment process.
Key features of Maraging 350 steel include:
- High strength: Maraging 350 has an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio, making it suitable for applications where high strength is required without adding significant weight.
- Aging process: The maraging process involves solution treating the steel at a high temperature and then rapidly cooling it to form a supersaturated solid solution. Subsequently, the material is aged at a lower temperature to precipitate intermetallic compounds, which contribute to the steel’s strength.
- Low carbon content: Maraging 350 contains a low percentage of carbon, which helps maintain its toughness and strength even after aging.
- Applications: Maraging 350 steel finds applications in various industries, including aerospace, defense, and tooling. It is often used in aircraft components, missile casings, rocket motor cases, and high-performance tools.
Due to the unique processing required to achieve its properties, maraging steel can be relatively expensive compared to other types of steels. However, its exceptional mechanical characteristics make it invaluable in critical and demanding applications where strength and toughness are crucial.
Applications of Maraging 350
- Aerospace Components: Maraging 350 steel is commonly used in the aerospace industry for critical components in aircraft and spacecraft. It is utilized in structural parts, landing gear components, engine mounts, and other parts that require high strength and reliability.
- Missile and Rocket Motor Casings: Due to its excellent strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to high stresses, Maraging 350 is used in the manufacturing of missile casings and rocket motor components.
- Defense and Military Applications: The steel’s toughness and ability to withstand high impact forces make it suitable for defense-related applications, including armored vehicles, ordnance components, and military equipment.
- Tooling and Die Applications: Maraging 350 is used in the production of high-performance tools and dies, such as punches, dies, and molds for metalworking and plastic injection molding. Its toughness and wear resistance are beneficial in extending the tool life and maintaining precision.
- High-Performance Shafts and Gears: In industries like automotive and heavy machinery, Maraging 350 steel is employed in the manufacturing of shafts, gears, and other high-stress transmission components.
- Sporting Goods: The steel’s combination of strength and lightness makes it suitable for certain sporting goods, such as golf club heads, tennis racket frames, and bicycle frames, where performance and weight reduction are critical factors.
- Oil and Gas Industry: Maraging 350 can be utilized in components for drilling and exploration equipment in the oil and gas industry, where resistance to high pressures and corrosive environments is vital.
- Medical Instruments: In some medical applications, Maraging 350 steel can be used for specialized instruments and equipment that require strength, precision, and resistance to corrosion.