Alloy 46 is a nickel-iron controlled expansion alloy containing 46: nickel. It has a fairly constant coefficient of thermal expansion from room temperature up to 932 °F (500 °C).Mainly used for glass seals in electronic applications
Alloy 46 is a nickel-iron alloy that belongs to the Invar family of alloys. Invar alloys are known for their low coefficient of thermal expansion, which means they have minimal dimensional changes when exposed to temperature variations. Alloy 46, also known as Invar 46, is specifically designed to have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, making it suitable for various applications where dimensional stability is crucial.
The composition of Alloy 46 typically consists of approximately 46% nickel and 54% iron. It may also contain small amounts of other elements like carbon, manganese, and silicon to enhance specific properties. The high nickel content gives Alloy 46 its low expansion characteristics.
Alloy 46 finds applications in fields where precise dimensional control is essential, particularly in industries such as aerospace, electronics, and scientific instrumentation. It is commonly used for components that require stability in environments with temperature fluctuations, such as precision optical and laser systems, electronic components, and cryogenic applications.
The low coefficient of thermal expansion of Alloy 46 enables it to maintain its shape and dimensions with minimal distortion, ensuring the accuracy and reliability of sensitive equipment and instruments. Its properties make it a preferred choice for applications that demand excellent dimensional stability and high performance in extreme temperature conditions.
Alloy 46, also known as Fe-Ni 46 or 46% Nickel-Iron Alloy, is a specific composition of the iron-nickel alloy family. It is characterized by its low coefficient of thermal expansion, making it ideal for applications requiring dimensional stability over a wide temperature range. Here is an overview of Alloy 46:
Alloy 46 primarily consists of approximately 46% nickel (Ni) and 54% iron (Fe). This composition provides the alloy with its unique properties, including its low thermal expansion coefficient.
Low Thermal Expansion:
One of the key characteristics of Alloy 46 is its exceptionally low coefficient of thermal expansion. It exhibits minimal dimensional changes over a wide range of temperatures, making it suitable for applications where stability and precision are critical. This property allows Alloy 46 to maintain its shape and dimensions even in the presence of significant temperature variations.
Alloy 46 finds applications in various industries where thermal stability is essential. Some common applications include:
Electronic Components: Alloy 46 is utilized in the manufacture of electronic components, such as lead frames, semiconductor packages, and thermal management devices. Its low thermal expansion coefficient helps maintain precise dimensions and prevents issues like warping or cracking due to temperature fluctuations.
Glass-to-Metal Seals: Due to its excellent compatibility with glass, Alloy 46 is commonly employed in glass-to-metal sealing applications. It acts as a reliable hermetic seal between glass and metal components in devices such as vacuum tubes, lamps, and sensors. The low thermal expansion of Alloy 46 ensures a tight, durable seal that withstands thermal cycling without compromising integrity.
Precision Instruments: Alloy 46 is used in precision instruments where dimensional stability is crucial. This includes optical devices, scientific instruments, and measurement tools that require accurate performance over a wide temperature range. The low thermal expansion of Alloy 46 helps maintain the precise alignment and calibration of these instruments.
Aerospace and Defense: Alloy 46 is also utilized in the aerospace and defense industries for various applications, including electronic connectors, guidance systems, and instrumentation. Its stability and reliability in extreme temperature conditions make it suitable for demanding aerospace environments.
Alloy 46 offers several advantages, including:
Dimensional Stability: Its low coefficient of thermal expansion ensures minimal dimensional changes, providing stability and maintaining accurate measurements over temperature variations.
Compatibility with Glass: Alloy 46 exhibits good compatibility with glass, making it an excellent choice for glass-to-metal sealing applications.
High Strength: Alloy 46 possesses good mechanical strength, allowing it to withstand the structural demands of various applications.
Corrosion Resistance: The nickel content in Alloy 46 provides enhanced corrosion resistance, increasing its durability and longevity.
In conclusion, Alloy 46 is a nickel-iron alloy renowned for its low coefficient of thermal expansion, making it well-suited for applications that require dimensional stability over a wide temperature range. Its compatibility with glass, high strength, and corrosion resistance contribute to its versatility and reliability in various industries, including electronics, glass sealing, precision instruments, and aerospace.
1. What is Alloy 46?
Alloy 46 is a nickel-iron-controlled expansion alloy. It is designed to provide a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to maintain dimensional stability over a range of temperatures.
2. What is the composition of Alloy 46?
Alloy 46 typically consists of approximately 46% nickel and the remaining balance as iron, with trace amounts of other elements.
3. What are the main properties of Alloy 46?
Alloy 46 is known for its low and controlled CTE, which means it has minimal dimensional changes with temperature variations. It also has excellent electrical conductivity and is non-magnetic.
4. What are the primary applications of Alloy 46?
Alloy 46 is used in applications where precise and stable dimensions over a range of temperatures are crucial. Common applications include aerospace components, electronic components, and scientific instruments.
5. Why is Alloy 46 used in the aerospace industry?
In the aerospace industry, dimensional stability is vital for components exposed to a wide range of temperatures. Alloy 46 helps maintain the integrity of materials and components under these conditions.
6. Is Alloy 46 corrosion-resistant?
Alloy 46 is not highly corrosion-resistant compared to some other nickel-based alloys. It may require protective coatings in corrosive environments.
7. Can Alloy 46 be machined easily?
Machining Alloy 46 can be challenging due to its toughness. It may require sharp tools and slower machining speeds.
8. What is the temperature range over which Alloy 46 exhibits low thermal expansion?
Alloy 46’s low CTE is evident over a temperature range from cryogenic temperatures (below -100°C) up to about 200°C.
9. Are there alternative materials to Alloy 46 for low CTE applications?
Yes, there are alternative materials, such as other nickel-iron alloys, that may be used for specific low CTE applications. However, Alloy 46 is known for its stable properties and is often preferred for its reliability.
10. Can Alloy 46 be used in electronic components?
Yes, Alloy 46 is commonly used in electronic components, such as semiconductor packages, to ensure stable electrical and mechanical performance over varying operating temperatures.
11. What is the availability of Alloy 46 in terms of forms and sizes?
Alloy 46 is available in various forms, including sheets, plates, rods, and wire. The specific forms and sizes can vary depending on the supplier and application requirements.
Alloy 46 Chemical Composition
|Alloy 46||≤0.05||≤ 0.02||≤ 0.02||≤ 0.80||≤0.30||≤ 0.10||45.0-47.0||Bal|
Alloy 46 Physical Properties
|Resistivity at 20°C (micro ohm·meter)||0.49|
|Specific heat (J/kg·°C)||502|
|Thermal conductivity (W/m·°C)||14.7|
|Melting temperature (°C)||1430|
Alloy 46 Average Coefficient Of Linear Expansion
|Temperature °C||10-6°C -1||Temperature °C||10-6°C -1|
Alloy 46 Mechanical Properties
|Properties||Tensile strength||Yield strength||Elongation at break|
|Metric||552 MPa||242 MPa||30%|
|Imperial||80 ksi||35 ksi||30%|
Alloy 46 Thermal Properties
|Properties||Thermal expansion co-efficient||Thermal conductivity|
|Metric||7.9 µm/m°C||0.11 W/mK|
|Imperial||4.4 µin/in°F||79.2 BTU in/hr.ft².°F|
- Bars & Rods & Foring Ring /Flanges
- Sheet & Plate
- Strip & Coil
- Welding Wire &Spring wire
- Seamless Tube & Welded Pipe
»Round Bar & Square Bar & Hexagon Bar
● Diameter : φ8～φ300mm Length:10mm-6000mm
● Hot forging, Hot Rolling, Cold Drawing
● Bright Surface, Polished Surface, Black Surface
»Tube & Pipe:Seamless Tube& Welded Pipe
● Cold Drawing Seamless Pipe： φ1.0～φ220mm
● Hot Extrusion pipe: φ50～φ250mm
● Others : U Blend Tube and Elbow
»Hot Rolled Plate & Cold Rolled Sheet
● Cold Rolling Sheet Thickness: ≦2.0mm Width:≦1500m
● Hot rolling Plate Thickness: ≧4.0mm Width: ≦2500m
»Strip & Tape Ribbon
● Thickness: ≧ 0.01mm Width: 15mm-300mm
● Cold rolling BA Strip, Hard & Soft Condition
»Straight Length Wire & Spool Wire
● Welding Wire: φ 0.1mm～6.0mm Cut length Rod: φ1.0～φ8.0mm
● Package : 5-25kg/Spool or Box
Alloy 46 ApplicationsI
Alloy 46 is used mainly for precision impedance diaphragm, with synthetic sapphire, soft glass, ceramic sealing
K94600 is a designation for a high-strength, corrosion-resistant steel alloy. It is commonly known as ASTM A286, which is the specification provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for this particular alloy.
ASTM A286 (K94600) is an iron-based superalloy that exhibits excellent high-temperature strength, oxidation resistance, and creep resistance. It contains a combination of various elements, including iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti), among others. The specific composition may vary slightly depending on the manufacturer and the desired properties.
The key characteristics of K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy include its ability to retain its strength and mechanical properties even at elevated temperatures of up to 704°C (1300°F). It also offers good corrosion resistance in various environments, making it suitable for applications where resistance to both high temperatures and corrosive conditions is required.
K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy finds application in industries such as aerospace, automotive, and oil and gas. It is used in critical components like turbine blades, exhaust systems, fasteners, and engine parts that are subjected to high stress and extreme temperatures.
It is important to note that when using K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy, it is necessary to follow the appropriate specifications and guidelines provided by ASTM and the manufacturer to ensure the desired performance and integrity of the alloy in specific applications. Additionally, specialized welding and heat treatment techniques may be required to fabricate and join components made from this alloy.
Here’s some additional information on K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy:
- Heat Treatment: K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy can be heat treated to enhance its mechanical properties. A common heat treatment process for this alloy is solution annealing, followed by aging. Solution annealing involves heating the alloy to a specific temperature range and then rapidly cooling it to obtain a single-phase austenitic structure. Aging is performed at a lower temperature to precipitate strengthening phases, which improves the alloy’s mechanical strength.
- Weldability: K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy is known for its good weldability. It can be welded using various techniques such as gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW/TIG), gas metal arc welding (GMAW/MIG), and resistance spot welding. However, to maintain the desired properties and avoid cracking, it is crucial to employ appropriate welding procedures, preheat treatments, and post-weld heat treatments as recommended by the alloy’s specifications and welding guidelines.
- Mechanical Properties: K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties, including high tensile strength, fatigue strength, and toughness. Its combination of strength and corrosion resistance makes it suitable for demanding applications where reliability and durability are required.
- Corrosion Resistance: K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy offers good corrosion resistance in various environments, including oxidizing and reducing conditions. It provides resistance to corrosion and pitting in chloride-containing solutions and is also resistant to sulfidation at high temperatures. However, its corrosion resistance may vary depending on the specific application and the exposure conditions.
- Cold Working: K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy can be cold worked to some extent, allowing for the fabrication of complex shapes and components. However, due to its high strength, it requires higher forming forces compared to conventional steels. Proper techniques and equipment are necessary to ensure successful cold working processes.
It’s important to consult the ASTM A286 specification and work with the manufacturer or technical experts familiar with the alloy to ensure proper handling, processing, and application of K94600 (ASTM A286) alloy in specific projects or industries.
1. What is K94600 alloy (Invar 36)?
K94600, or Invar 36, is a nickel-iron alloy known for its low thermal expansion properties. It consists of 36% nickel and the remainder iron, with trace amounts of other elements. The name “Invar” is derived from “invariable” due to its minimal expansion over a wide temperature range.
2. What are the main properties of K94600?
K94600 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), excellent dimensional stability, and good mechanical properties at both room and low temperatures. It is also non-magnetic.
3. What are the primary applications of K94600?
K94600 is used in various applications where minimal thermal expansion is critical, such as precision instruments, optical systems, aerospace components, and scientific equipment.
4. Why is K94600 suitable for optical and scientific instruments?
K94600 is used in these applications because it maintains its dimensions over a wide temperature range, which is crucial for precise measurements and accurate readings.
5. What is the temperature range over which K94600 exhibits low thermal expansion?
K94600’s low CTE is evident over a temperature range from cryogenic temperatures (below -100°C) up to about 200°C.
6. Can K946006 be machined easily?
K94600 can be machined, but it has a high work-hardening rate, so it requires sharp tools and slow machining speeds. It is often used in its annealed form for easier machining.
7. Is K94600 corrosion-resistant?
K94600 is not highly corrosion-resistant compared to some other nickel-based alloys. It can be subject to corrosion in aggressive environments, so protective coatings or platings may be necessary in such cases.
8. Are there alternative materials to K94600 for low CTE applications?
Yes, there are alternative materials, such as other nickel-iron alloys and composites, that may be used for specific applications. However, K94600 remains one of the most widely used materials in this category due to its well-established properties.
9. How is K94600 typically supplied and manufactured?
K94600 is available in various forms, including sheets, plates, rods, and wire. It is typically produced by vacuum induction melting.
10. Are there any limitations or considerations when using K94600?
– While K94600 has excellent properties for specific applications, it can be relatively expensive compared to other materials. Additionally, its non-magnetic properties can limit its use in certain applications that require magnetic materials.
K94600 is a unique alloy valued for its ability to maintain precise dimensions over a wide temperature range, making it a crucial material in applications where thermal stability is paramount. If you have more specific questions about K94600 or its use in particular applications, please feel free to ask.